I'm reasonably certain that this question is the one you're referring to that you saw in the review queue.
And it appears that this older question is a fairly close duplicate of the one you saw. However, the older question is several months older and likely wouldn't have been the one you were thinking of.
Using a combination of terms and even searching through deleted questions,1 I wasn't able to find any other suitable matches.
But with that said, let's address your question:
Is there an easy way to view closed questions to see if a newly posted question is a rehash of a previously closed question?
The short answer is yes, there are some easy ways. And the search help gives you some tips on conditionals that you can apply to the search terms.
In this case, I would have used "is:question closed:yes" in order to narrow the search and then sorted that view by newest posts.
An example of what I might have searched on can be found here.
1 Apparently that diamond thingy after my name can come in handy...